Instructions to Authors
The Journal is devoted to providing a forum for communication of relevant information for pharmacy educators and all others interested in the advancement of pharmacy education. To be considered for publication, manuscripts must directly relate to pharmacy education and provide useful information for the national or international audience of the Journal. If a submission has only local or regional relevance, its usefulness to the majority of readers is limited and thus will not be accepted. To ensure that only accurate and substantive articles are included, all manuscripts undergo a peer review process and editorial approval prior to acceptance.
Reviews. Reviews are comprehensive, well-referenced descriptive papers on teaching or research topics directly related to entry-level and graduate or postgraduate education and training or skill development. The Reviews section includes papers on the history of pharmacy education. These manuscripts should not exceed 25 double-spaced pages for all components.
Research Articles. Research articles describe experimental or observational investigations that used formal methods for data collection and reporting of results of studies directly related to pharmacy education. The category does not include investigations of instructional methods or approaches. These manuscripts should not exceed 25 double-spaced pages for all components.
Instructional Design and Assessment. Instructional Design and Assessment papers describe novel methods for professional and graduate student instruction (lectures, laboratories, practice experiences, or courses), or informational manuscripts on programmatic and curriculum development. These manuscripts should not exceed 25 double-spaced pages for all components. Instructional Design and Assessment articles should conform to the IDEAS format as described in an updated article by Poirier et al. [Poirier T, Crouch M, Hak E, MacKinnon G, Mehvar R, Monk-Tutor M. Updated guidelines for manuscripts describing instructional design and assessment: the IDEAS format. Am J Pharm Educ. 2009;73(3):Article 55.] (http://www.ajpe.org/view.asp?art=aj730355&pdf=yes)
Teachers' Topics. Teachers' Topics are invited manuscripts from those named Teachers of the Year at AACP member institutions. Teachers’ Topics papers follow the IDEAS format as described above. These manuscripts should not exceed 25 double-spaced pages for all components.
Innovations in Teaching. Innovations in Teaching are invited manuscripts from recipients of the AACP Innovations in Teaching Award. These manuscripts should not exceed 25 double-spaced pages for all components.
Letters to the Editor. Letters to the Editor serve as a forum for the expression of ideas or for commenting on matters of interest. It is also an avenue for critiquing or expanding on the information presented in a previously published manuscript. Authors are required to identify themselves. The Editor reserves the right to reject, shorten, excerpt, or edit letters for publication.
Book and Software Reviews. Book and Software Reviews are brief documents that provide the reader with a clear understanding of content in a book or software program, as well as the product structure, scope, and limitations. The reviewer should state the value or utility of the product for instruction, research, or other academic activities.
AACP Reports and Minutes. AACP Reports and AACP Minutes are summaries of activity of officers, delegates, and committees within AACP.
For all manuscripts reporting on research involving human subjects (including educational and institutional research), the author should indicate in the cover letter that the research has been reviewed and approved by the appropriate human research or ethics review committee, or that it has been determined to be exempt from such review. For research that has undergone such review and approval, a statement to that effect should be included in the methods section.
All survey research must meet criteria established by the Journal’s Editorial Board. Please refer to the following publications for guidelines:
The style specifications for the Journal must be followed. Below are general guidelines for manuscript format and style. If in doubt about style, authors should refer to the American Medical Association (AMA) Manual of Style, 10th ed, or consult a recent issue of the Journal.
Text. The text should be scholarly, readable, clear, and concise. Standard nomenclature should be used. Unfamiliar terms and acronyms should be defined at first mention. Manuscripts that were prepared for oral presentation must be rewritten for print. Authors of research papers are discouraged from writing excessively long introduction or discussion sections.
Word Style. Consult a current edition of Webster's dictionary for guidance on spelling, compounding, and word separation. Foreign words, not in general use, should be italicized. For proper use of chemical and biochemical terms, mathematical equations, mathematical expressions, special symbols, subscripts, superscripts, or Greek letters, please refer to the AMA Manual of Style.
Capitalization. The word "association" must be capitalized when referring to the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy. When the word "journal" is capitalized and italicized as Journal, it can refer only to the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. In scientific writing, always capitalize the following: major words in titles and headings of manuscripts, designators for tables, figures, and appendices (eg, Appendix 1), eponyms (but not the noun that follows them, eg, Gram stain, Babinski sign), names of tests (eg, Beck Depression Inventory), genus names of organisms (but not the name of species, varieties or subspecies), acts of legislation (eg, Medicare), awards (eg, Nobel Prize), proprietary names (eg, Xerox copier), the title of a person when followed by the person's name (eg, Chair John W. Jones), official names of organizations and institutions (eg, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), geographic places (eg, United States of America), sociocultural designations (eg, Republicans, French people), and historical events (eg, Vietnam War).
Abbreviations. In instances where repeated use of an organization or chemical name would become awkward, an official or accepted abbreviation may be substituted. The abbreviation should be placed in parentheses immediately following the first use of the name in the main body of the text. Abbreviations of common pharmaceutical associations or organizations do not require periods or spaces between letters (eg, AMA). Abbreviations of "eg," and "ie," and "et al" should not be separated by periods. The names of US states and countries should be spelled out when they stand alone (eg, “…pharmacists throughout the United States...”). Do not use postal abbreviations for states in the text. The abbreviation “US” may be used as a modifier only when it directly precedes the word it modifies (eg, US health policies). Otherwise, it should be spelled out (eg, “…the population of the United States”). The names of all other cities, states, provinces, and countries should be spelled out when they occur within the text of the article. Refer to the AMA Manual of Style for additional rules regarding abbreviations.
Numbers. Numbers must be written as Arabic numerals unless they occur at the beginning of a sentence, in which case the number should be spelled out. The exception to this rule is when the number “one” is used in isolation within the text and substituting an Arabic number would seem awkward (eg, “there was only one logical solution to the problem”). A number containing a decimal must be styled as an Arabic number. All fractions must be written as decimal equivalents.
Measurements. The metric system will be used for all measurements; however, conventional units should be used instead of SI units. Do not use periods when abbreviating units of measure.
Reference numbers. Reference numbers cited in the text of an article should be superscript Arabic numerals placed at the end of the sentence, outside the final period or other punctuation. Subsequent citations to the same reference must be indicated by the same number originally assigned to that reference. Do not place parentheses around reference numbers cited in text.
Personal Communications. If the reference source for information in an article is from a personal communication, it should be referenced as such in parentheses immediately following the material to which it pertains. A personal communication reference must include the persons first initial and last name, type of communication, and date (eg, T.L. Johnson, e-mail, October 2, 2002). AJPE requires that you obtain and provide to the Journal written permission from the person to use them as a reference.
Hypertext Links. Authors may identify uniform resource locators (URLs) for Internet Web sites that provide the reader with additional information on the topic addressed in the manuscript. Although URLs are an important feature of electronic publishing, authors are encouraged to be selective in their choice of sites to include. Do not include URLs for Web pages with newspaper or journal articles that will be removed or archived to another Web page. Links to pharmaceutical manufacturers or other sources of product information are acceptable; however, providing a URL to the reader should not be substituted for adequate discussion within the manuscript itself. Only include links to sites that are accessible without a password.
When submitting a manuscript in Editorial Manager, the manuscript document (usually a Word file) should be arranged in the following order: title page, abstract, text, references, tables, figures, and appendices. Editorial Manager allows authors to upload files with tables, figures, and appendices separately if that is more convenient.
Title Page. The title page should have the following information: a concise title, name of each author, terminal degree, academic/professional title and affiliation, and city and state where located. If an author has relocated to another institution, please include his/her affiliation during the time the author worked on the manuscript. At the lower left of the page, indicate the name of the corresponding author and provide his/her mailing address, telephone number, facsimile number, and e-mail address. At the bottom of the title page, indicate 3 to 5 keywords.
Abstract. Each manuscript must include an abstract of 100 to 150 words. For Research Articles, the abstract should include a brief statement (1 to 3 sentences) for each of the following sections: Objective, Methods, Results, and Conclusions. For Instructional Design and Assessment papers, the abstract should include a statement for the following sections: Objective, Design, Assessment, and Conclusions. Each section within the abstract should be flushed left, followed by a period and the statements summarizing that section.
Main Body of Text. The use of subheadings to divide the text is encouraged. Primary headings should be in bold upper case letters and should contain no more than 35 characters or spaces. Secondary headings should be in bold title case and appear above the paragraph. Tertiary headings should be in bold with only the initial letter capitalized. Tertiary headings should end with a period and should appear before the beginning of the first sentence in that section. Design and Methods sections should be written in the past tense voice. Authors should address in the Discussion or Conclusion how the work could be translated to other institutions.
Acknowledgments. Any special funding received for research that is the subject of the manuscript should be included under a section entitled "Acknowledgments" at the end of the text. If the authors wish to thank colleagues or others who provided assistance with their research or manuscript preparation, those acknowledgments also should be included under this section. Any statements concerning liability for the content of the manuscript may be included here as well (eg, "the ideas expressed in this manuscript are those of the author and in no way are intended to represent the position of…"). Conflicts in funding issues should be included.
References. References to a published source should be provided for all information in the manuscript that contains dates, facts, or opinions other than those of the author. Authors are responsible for the accuracy and completeness of all citations. References should be numbered consecutively in the order in which the information contained in the referenced publication appears or is referred to in the manuscript. A second abbreviated reference or use of the term "ibid" to refer to information cited in a previous reference should not be cited. Instead, if information from the same source is referred to a second time in the manuscript, the same reference number originally assigned to that source should be cited. For detailed information on reference style, refer to the section on Stylistic Concerns.
Each journal citation must include the surnames and complete initials of all authors. For manuscripts with 7 or more authors, the first 3 authors should be listed, followed by a comma and “et al.” The names of all periodicals cited must be abbreviated in accordance with abbreviations adopted by the National Library of Medicine and used in Index Medicus. An example and special instructions for specific types of references are provided below. For additional guidance, please refer to the AMA Manual of Style, 10th ed, or to a recent issue of the Journal.
Journal articles. For references to journal articles, list the names of the authors beginning with the last name of each author followed by his/her initials. After the authors' names, list the title of the article. The first letter of the first word of the title is upper case type, but the remainder of the title should be in lower case letters, except for the first letter of proper names. A period should be placed after the title. Next, provide the properly abbreviated title of the journal in italics followed by a period. Please refer to the journal list on PubMed for proper reference abbreviations (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/journals). Finally, include the following numerical information: year of publication followed by a semicolon, volume number, issue number in parentheses, and a colon followed by page number(s). If the article does not appear on consecutive pages, use a semicolon between each segment of pages (eg, 172-175;179-183;199.)
Example: Stratton TP, Cochran GA. A rural geriatric experience. Am J Pharm Educ. 1990;62:151-155.
Book. List the last name of the first author of the book, followed by the first and middle initial if given, just as in a journal reference. The names of all authors must be listed. Place a period after the last author's initials. Next, state the title of the book using standard rules for capitalization within titles. A period should be placed at the end of the title. If more than one edition of the book has been published, then the edition number must be given. The numerical form of the ordinal number should be used to indicate the edition number (eg, 9th), followed by a space and "ed." Next, provide the city and state where the publisher is located. Use postal abbreviations for states. A colon should separate the city and state from the name of the publisher. The full name of the publisher should be given, followed by a semicolon. Next, provide the year of publication followed by a period. If the reference is to a specific page(s) within the book, place a colon after the year of publication, followed by the page or page numbers referenced.
Example: Martin AN. Physical Pharmacy. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger; 1993:268;270-273.
Chapter in a book. To reference a single chapter in a book, first list the authors and state the title as you would if citing a journal article. The chapter title should be followed by the word "In" followed by a colon. Next, list the name(s) and initials of the editors of the book, followed by a comma and the abbreviation “ed” or “eds” followed by a period. Next include the title of the book, location of the publisher, name of publisher, year of publication, and page numbers (same format as for a reference to an entire book (see previous example).
Example: Lyon RA, Titeler M. Pharmacology and biochemistry of the 5-HT2 receptor. In: Sanders-Bush E, ed. The Serotonin Receptors. Clifton, NJ: Humana Press;1989:59-88.
Thesis or dissertation. For references to theses or dissertations, place the title of the thesis or dissertation in italics. Include the location of the institution, its name, and the year the thesis or dissertation was completed.
Example: Thorn MD. A Comparative Review of the Statistical and Research Quality of the Medical and Pharmacy Literature [masters thesis]. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina, 1982.
Online material. For references to journals, e-magazines, or other publications on the Internet, state the names of the authors, title of the article, publication title, and volume and publication date in the same format as you would for a journal reference. For references to other information, give the title of the Web page, followed by the name of the organization or Web site that published the information. For all references to online material, the author should include the uniform resource locator (URL) for the page of the Web site referenced (eg, www.hcfa.gov/stats.htm), followed by a period. Finally, write “Accessed” followed by the month, day, and year on which the information was obtained from the site, followed by a period.
Example: Healthy People 2010, Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. http://health.gov/healthypeople. Accessed May 25, 2010.
Unpublished works. For references to unpublished material, such as articles or abstracts presented at professional meetings but not published, provide the name of the meeting where the article was presented. If the abstract has been published, the published source should be cited.
Article in press. For references to information in books or articles that are currently in press, provide all of the available information for the reference. In place of the year, volume, issue, and page numbers, include “In press.”
Example: Adamcik B, Hurley S, Erramouspe J. Assessment of pharmacy students' critical thinking and problem-solving abilities. Am J Pharm Educ. In press.
Manuscripts that have been submitted to a publisher or journal but have not been accepted for publication cannot be included in the reference section. To attribute information in the text to an unpublished source, list the authors and date the manuscript was completed, along with the words “unpublished data.”
Example: “Similar results were achieved in a study of attrition rates in 2 Southeastern colleges of pharmacy conducted by P.T. Jones (unpublished data, 2009).”
Tables and Figures
Tables.Tables should not duplicate information provided in the text. Instead, tables should be used to provide additional information that illustrates or expands on a specific point the author wishes to make. Each table should be self-explanatory and begin on a separate page in the document. Tables should be numbered using Arabic numbers according to the order in which they are referred to in the text.
Tables should be created using Microsoft Word table formatting tools (do not use the tab key to form rows and columns of data as tab information is lost when the document is processed by the publisher). The table number and table title should be placed in the first row (merged to form a single cell) of the table. Data must be placed in separate cells within the table to prevent text and numbers from shifting. Footnotes should be placed at the bottom of the table inside a single row and ordered using superscript lower-case letters (beginning with “a”) rather than footnote symbols. A superscript letter that refers the reader to the corresponding footnote should be inserted in the table title or body of the table. Refer to a current issue of the Journal for examples of table style.
Figures. Figures should be numbered using Arabic numbers, based on the order in which they are presented in the text. Figure legends should be concise and self-explanatory. All illustrative materials for the figures should be submitted as high-resolution gif or jpg files. The key to any symbols in a graph or chart should be included as part of the illustration itself, rather than in the legend. Do not place a box around graphs or other types of figures. If figures contain illustrations that have been published elsewhere, a letter of permission to reprint from the original publisher must accompany the manuscript.
A graphic image embedded in a MS Word file has a resolution of 188 dpi or lower. As a result, when printed, graphics and text within the graphic may look fuzzy. If possible, send graphics with a resolution of at least 300 dpi. Large and/or high-resolution graphic images saved as TIFF or EPS images should be uploaded to Editorial Manager as separate files from the manuscript text (Word file).
Use Arial font for any lettering within the graphic images. Figures, symbols, lettering and numbering should be clear and large enough to be legible when reduced. The minimum font size that should be used within the figure is 10 pt and the maximum is 14 pt. As a general rule, the final graphic should be no more than 6.5 inches in width, large enough to span a single Journal page.
Please submit your manuscript using AJPE’s Editorial Manager online tracking system at http://ajpe.edmgr.com. Log in using your username and password and then follow the step-by-step on-screen instructions for uploading your files. If you do not know your username and password or need to have an account created for you, please send an e-mail to firstname.lastname@example.org and someone will respond as quickly as possible.
NOTE: When you attempt to log in, you may get an alert message stating Editorial Manager requires browser cookies (a tiny file placed on your computer so the site will remember who you are). Option 1: If you're using Internet Explorer, go to Tools > Internet Options > Privacy. Move the setting to "low" (ie, accept first-party cookies asking for personal information but no third-party cookies). Option 2: If you do not wish to change your browser settings, simply click OK in response to the message, then log in twice (the first time it will not work because there's no cookie to access, but the second time it will accept the information and open Editorial Manager).
If for any reason it is not possible for you to submit your paper using AJPE’s Editorial Manager site as outlined above, send your manuscript as an e-mail attachment to email@example.com and someone will assist you.
Copyright Form. Manuscripts submitted to the Journal should be unpublished and not under consideration elsewhere. Under the terms of the Copyright Revision Act of 1976 (Public Law 94-533) it is necessary to have the rights of the authors transferred to the publisher in order to provide for the widest possible dissemination of professional and scientific literature. The editorial office must receive a transfer of copyright form before a manuscript can be published online. The author may mail the form at the time a paper is submitted or wait until it is accepted for publication.
Formatting, Copyediting, and Proofing of Accepted Manuscripts
Copyediting Stage. Prior to publication, all manuscripts are copyedited for organization, style, and clarity. Authors may be asked at this stage to reorganize a manuscript or shorten the text.
Proofing Stage. Authors will receive an e-mail with a link to online electronic galley proofs (eProof) of their paper for review approximately 10 days prior to publication. Authors may send an e-mail with an annotated PDF (corrections entered using Adobe Acrobat software) attached, or they may print out the eProof, mark corrections on the copy, and fax only those pages with corrections to the journal office (fax: 803-777-3097). The Journal allows authors 2 business days to return eProofs.